Existing projects that are relevant to our workthrough their subject matter, spatial qualities, or programmatic potential—are analyzed below. Some are built works and others are speculative, but not all are exemplary; we use the precedent study process to both be inspired and to critique. Projects fall into five categories: rehabilitation, infrastructure, energy, urbanism, and remediation.      


Appalachian Trail Benton MacKaye, 1921-2014

Rosecrance Healing Garden Hoichi Kurisu, 2004  

Dubai Healthcare City Cracknell, 2002  

Kush Valley Miles Deife, Connor Deife, Joshua Chase, 2015  

Sunspire Health Heartland Sunspire Health, 2016  




Tennessee Valley Authority United States Federal Government, 1933  

Rose Fitzgerald Kennedy Greenway Various designers, 2008 

Dendritic Zoning ATLAS Lab, 2013  

Umbral de las Americas Elizabeth Añaños, Adriana Chavez, Daniel Daou, Oscar Malaspina Quevedo, Gabriel Morales, Nicolas Rivard, Einat Rosenkrantz, 2014  

Girard Avenue Interchange AECOM, 2017-  

Border Wall Prototypes Various designers, 2017-  


Prosper-Haniel Mine Andre Niemann and Ulrich Schreiber, 2017-

Huainan Floating Solar Farm Sunrow Power + JA Solar Company, 2017




Broadacre City Frank Lloyd Wright,  1932  

Plug-In City Archigram, 1964

Arcosanti Paolo Soleri,  1970  

Autonomous City Drew Adams, Daniel Ibañez, Fadi Masoud, 2011